Two international teams have independently produced the first drafts of the human proteome. These curated catalogs of the proteins expressed in most non-diseased human tissues and organs can be used as a baseline to better understand changes that occur in disease states. Their findings were published in Nature.

Both teams uncovered new complexities of the human genome, identifying novel proteins from regions of the genome previously thought to be non-coding.

Nanotechnology has become one of the most promising technologies applied in all areas of science. Metal nanoparticles produced by nanotechnology have received global attention due to their extensive applications in the biomedical and physiochemical fields. Recently, synthesizing metal nanoparticles using microorganisms and plants has been extensively studied and has been recognized as a green and efficient way for further exploiting microorganisms as convenient nanofactories. Here, we explore and detail the potential uses of various biological sources for nanoparticle synthesis and the application of those nanoparticles.

Only 15% of patients with squamous cell lung cancer -the second most common lung cancer- survive five years past diagnosis. Little is understood about how the deadly disease arises, preventing development of targeted therapies that could serve as a second line of defense once standard chemotherapy regimens fail.

Huntsman Cancer Institute investigators report that misregulation of two genes, sox2 and lkb1, drives squamous cell lung cancer in mice. The discovery uncovers new treatment strategies, and provides a clinically relevant mouse model in which to test them.“This is the most exciting thing we’ve done,” said senior author Trudy Oliver, Ph.D., an assistant professor of oncological sciences at the University of Utah and Huntsman Cancer Institute investigator. “Now that we have a model it unleashes so many questions we can ask to gain a better understanding of the disease.”

A new study identifies a molecule that is a probable driving force in colorectal cancer and suggests that the molecule could be an important target for colorectal cancer treatment and a valuable biomarker of tumor progression.
The study of microRNA-135b (miR-135b) in two animal models and human tumors was published in the journal Cancer Cell and was led by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center -- Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC -- James) and at the University of Glasgow in the United Kingdom.
The researchers demonstrate that miR-135b is present at abnormally high levels in both mouse and human colorectal (CRC) tumors. The overexpression can be induced by the mutations in either well-known oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes that frequently occur in CRC, the researchers say.

A team of scientists at the University of Kansas has pinpointed six chemical compounds that thwart HuR, an 'oncoprotein' that binds to RNA and promotes tumor growth.

"These are the first reported small-molecule HuR inhibitors that competitively disrupt HuR-RNA binding and release the RNA, thus blocking HuR function as a tumor-promoting protein," said Liang Xu, associate professor of molecular biosciences and corresponding author of the paper.

The results hold promise for treating a broad array of cancers in people. The researcher said HuR has been detected at high levels in almost every type of cancer tested, including cancers of the colon, prostate, breast, brain, ovaries, pancreas and lung.